Kidney Stones Medicine
Although medication cannot be used to dissolve kidney stones, medicine is available to help prevent them from coming back. In order to determine which medicine is needed, a doctor first identifies what type of kidney stones a person has. Depending on the kidney stones, medicine will be prescribed to control urine acidity/alkalinity, decrease the amount of calcium or cystine that is released into the urine, or keep the urine free of bacteria.
While there is no medication that will dissolve kidney stones, most will pass on their own when you drink plenty of fluids and take pain medicine, if needed.
However, depending on the type of kidney stones that you have, there are medicines that can help prevent them from coming back. Therefore, it is important to save the stone when it is passed (a urine strainer will be provided for this purpose) so that doctors can identify what the stone is made of.
In order to prevent uric acid stones, doctors may prescribe a drug called allopurinol. Allopurinol is used to control the amount of acid or alkali in the urine, which are key factors in crystal formation.
In order to prevent calcium stones, doctors may prescribe certain diuretics, such as hydrochlorothiazide. Diuretics can decrease the amount of calcium released into the urine by favoring calcium retention in bones. Diuretics work best when sodium intake is low. In rare cases, patients with calcium stones may be given sodium cellulose phosphate, which binds calcium in the intestines and prevents it from leaking into the urine.
In order to prevent cystine stones, doctors generally advise drinking plenty of fluids and prescribe medicines such as Thiola® and Cuprimine®, which will help reduce the amount of cystine in the urine.